Christianity and history


travel guides

and history
and culture
Slide shows About the
Art and
Reviews of CTGs Christian tours

October 2001


Name: Irving Hexham

Date of Birth: 14 April, 1943

Place of Birth: Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Marital Status: Married: to Karla Poewe.

Nationality: British/Canadian

Languages: English - fluent; Afrikaans and German - good working knowledge

Present Post: Professor


Department of Religious Studies
University of Calgary
2500 University Drive N.W.
Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4

Home - (403) 241-1059
Work - (403) 220-5886
Fax - (403) 547-2933


Web Sites:


City & Guilds, Certificate, Gas Fitting, 1962
Intermediate Diploma, Domestic Gas Technology, 1963
Advanced Diploma, Industrial Gas Technology, 1964
University Matriculation, by correspondence, British "A" levels, 1967.
B.A. (Hons.), Religious Studies, Lancaster University, 1970
M.A. "with commendation," Theology, Bristol University, 1972
Ph.D., History, Bristol University, 1975
Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1976)

Academic Interests: Religion, Theology and Society since the Enlightenment in a global perspective

Publications - for complete details see my list of publications:

1. Seven books
2. Twelve edited books
3. Over sixty refereed journal articles and chapters in refereed books and forty-one encyclopaedia articles
4. Various journalistic articles over 100 book reviews

Church Affiliation: Anglican



Pre-University Education:

Leaving school at fifteen I served a six-year apprenticeship during which I obtained my City and Guilds in Gas Fitting and Advanced Diplomas in Gas Technology and completed the Gas Board's sales training course. These qualifications were equivalent to the Higher National Certificate that in Britain has the professional standing of a university degree. In 1964, I attended a management course before being promoted to a junior management position. While in management I obtained university matriculation qualifications, British "A" levels, by correspondence courses sitting examinations in: Ancient History, British Constitution, Economics, Logic and Religion.

Undergraduate Education:

B.A. (Hons) Religious Studies: concentration on Theology, Philosophy and History. Courses included: Modern History; History of Science; History of Religion; Phenomenology of Religion; Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Japanese Religions; Modern Religious and Atheistic Thought; Modern Theology; New Testament; Church History; Epistemology; Ethics; Logic; Philosophy of Religion; Political Philosophy; Philosophy of History; and the Sociology of Religion. Tutors included Ninian Smart, Edward Conze, James Richmond, Robert Morgan, and James Dickie.

Graduate Education:

M.A. Religious Studies and Theology: concentration on Anthropology and Theology. Courses on African Religions, Contemporary Religions; Theology; and Social Anthropology. I studied anthropological techniques and gathered material for my thesis by participant observation. In essence the beliefs discussed in my thesis were a westernized form of Hinduism of Theosophical origin supported by a rich eclectic mythology. Tutors included Fred Welbourn and Michael Banton. Thesis title: Some Aspects of the Contemporary Search for an Alternative Society. Thesis supervisor Revd. F.B. Welbourn.

Ph.D. History: concentration on History. I learnt Afrikaans, and lived as a participant observer in an Afrikaner-Nationalist community in addition to working in English, Dutch, and South African archives. The dissertation dealt with the origins of the ideology of apartheid and the relationship between Calvinism and Afrikaner Nationalism prior to 1920. Ph.D. thesis title: Totalitarian Calvinism: The Reformed("Dopper") Community in South Africa, 1902-1919. Dissertation supervisor Professor Kenneth Ingham.

Workshops and Short Courses:

1. Management and Leadership Training Course, North Western Gas Board Staff Training Centre, Meer College, 4-8 May, 1964.
2. Survey Research Workshop, the University of Manitoba, three days, 1983.
3. Course in Marketing, M.B.A. program, University of Manitoba
4. Effective Lectures and Presentations, Three Day Workshop, Shipley Associates, Shell Canada Training Centre, 14-16 June, 1991.
5. Management Seminar, given by Professors Henry Migliore and Robert A. Shulz, University of Calgary, 13 November, 1991.
6. Goethe Institute, Berlin, Germany, two months, 1995.

Academic Research Seminars Attended:

1. Colloquium on "The Concept of Religion", University of Lancaster, 1969.
2. Colloquium on "Methodology in the Study of Religion", University of Lancaster, 1970.
3. Colloquium on "A Comparative Approach to Hermeneutics in Religion", University of Lancaster, 1972.
4. Bi-weekly research seminar on Southern African history organized by Terrance Ranger at the University of Manchester, 1974-1977.
5. Colloquium on "Max Weber and Religion" at the University of Lancaster, 1974.
6. Workshop on "The Problems of Developing Societies," Department of Sociology, University of Manchester, 13-15 May 1975.
7. Colloquium on "The Psychology of Religion" at the University of Lancaster, 1976.
8. Conference/Workshop on "Christianity and `Primitive' Religions" Royal Anthropological Institute, 1976.
9. Conference/Workshop on "Spirit Possession and Ecstatic Religion", Royal Anthropological Institute, 1977.
10. Conference/Workshop on "Modernity and Religion", University of British Columbia, 1981.
11. Colloquium on "New Directions in Religious Research", University of Lethbridge, 1983.
12. Conference/Workshop on "The Future of Religious Studies", University of Manitoba, 1989.
13. Wissenschaftliche Konferenz mit internationaler Beteiligung, Berlin, "Missionsgeschichte-Kirchengeschichte-Weltgeschichte," 1994.
14. Wissenschaftliche Konferenz mit internationaler Beteiligung, Berlin, "Mission und Gewalt," 1999.


Field Research and Study:

1. Three weeks industrial study, West Berlin, 1962-1963.
2. Three months at the L'Abri Fellowship in Switzerland, 1967.
3. Three months in South Africa, 1969.
4. One month in The Netherlands, 1972.
5. Two and a half years in South Africa, 1972-1974.
6. Four months in Britain & South African, 1981.
7. One week in South Korea, 1981.
8. Two months in Western Canada and U.S.A., 1983.
9. One month in England, 1985.
10. One month in South Africa, 1986.
11. Four months in South Africa, 1987.
12. Two months in South Africa, 1989.
13. Two weeks in England and four weeks in Germany, 1991.
14. One week in former Eastern Germany, 1992.
15. Two months in Germany, 1993
16. Two weeks in Germany, 1994.
17. Four months in Berlin, Germany, 1995.
18. Three weeks in Germany, 1997.
19. Ten days in Berlin, Germany, 1998.
20. Ten days in Berlin, Germany, 1999.
21. Four months in Germany, 2000
22. Two monthis in Germany, 2001

Fellowships and Grants:

1. North Western Gas Board Apprentice Exchange visit to Berlin, Germany, 1961.
2. Cheshire Council, Student Award, 1967-1970, for B.A.
3. Lancaster University travel scholarship, 1969, for project on Afrikaner Nationalism in South Africa.
4. British-South African travel award, 1972, for travel to South Africa.
5. Department of Education and Science, England, postgraduate scholarship, 1972-1974.
6. University of Manitoba Travel Scholarship, 1981, for project on Zulu religion,
7. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), 410-81-0036, 1981, Research Grant, for project on Afrikaner Folk Religion and Prophetic Movements.
8. University of Manitoba, Research Grant, 1982, to project on the "Moral Majority in Manitoba."
9. SSHRC, 410-82-0066, 1982, Research Grant, "Unification Church in Canada."
10. University of Manitoba, Research Grant, 431-1671-01, 1983, Survey of Religion in Winnipeg.
11. University of Calgary, Research Grant, 840876, 1985, "Ploughs and Polygamy: The Relationship Between Religion and Technology in 19th Century Zulu Society."
12 University of Calgary Special Publication Grant, 851387, for text on Zulu Religion.
13. SSHRC, Research Grant, 1987, 410-87-0415, "Religion and Reconciliation in South Africa."
15. Calgary University, Research Grant, 872756, "Afri-Trends: Survey of South African Christians."
16. Calgary Institute for the Humanities, Research Fellowship, 1989-1990 (involving reduced teaching load).
17. University of Calgary, Research Grant, 892890, 1990, "Neo-Kyperian Calvinism.."
18. University of Calgary, Travel Grant, 901014, 1991, for conferences in England.
19. University of Calgary, Research Grant, "The Impact of Christian Missions in Trans-Oranjia and the Orange Free State Prior to 1910."
19. University of Calgary, Research Grant, 921789, 1992,"The Origins of Religious Belief in an Officially Atheist Community."
20. University of Calgary, Travel Grant, 940112, 1994, for International Mission conference in Berlin, Germany.
21. University of Calgary, Research Grant, 940637, 1994, "German Missions and African Independent Churches in South Africa."
22. University of Calgary, Research Grant, 961884, "New Religions and the Growing Threat to Religious Freedom in Europe."
23 University of Calgary, Research and Travel Grant, 982741, for visit to Berlin, Germany, 1999.
24. SSHRC, 1998, Research Grant, for work on the theology of the ama-Nazarites.

Sabbatical and Research Leaves:

1 None, 1974-1990;
2 September 1, 1990 - August, 31, 1991.
3 January 1, - June 31, 1995.
4 July 1-December 31, 1998
5 January- June 2001


1. Six year apprenticeship with the North Western Gas Board in England.
2. Various managerial positions with the North Western Gas Board in England.

1. Assistant Professor, Bishop Lonsdale College, University of Derby, England, 1974-1977.
2. Course Tutor, The Open University, Derby Tutorial Centre, Derby, England, 1975-1977.
3. Assistant Professor, Regent College (Graduate School), Vancouver, Canada, 1977-1980.
4. Assistant Professor, Religious Studies, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, 1980-1984.
5. Assistant Professor, Religious Studies, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, 1984-1988.
6. Associate Professor, Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1988 -1992.
7. Full Professor, Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1992 - present.


1. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion
2. Royal Anthropological Institute
3. American Academy of Religion
4. Canadian Society for the Study of Religion
5. The Christian Institute of Southern Africa, I was a member from 1969 until the Institute was banned in 1977.
6. South African Institute of Race Relations.
7. South African Society for Mission Studies.
8. Berliner Gesellschaft für Missionsgeschichte
9. Deutschen Vereinigung für Religionsgeschichte.


1. Editorial Board, LOOG (Potchefstroom, South Africa), 1972-1973.
2. Contributing Editor, Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, (Cape Town, South Africa), 1981 -1993.
3. Contributing editor KOERS (Potchefstroom, South Africa). 1987-.
4. General Editor, Southern African Series, Edwin Mellen Press (Lewiston, USA), 1992.
5. Editorial Board, Studies in Religion, (Waterloo, Canada), 1994-.
6. Editorial Board, Religion, (Lancaster and Santa Barbara), 1994-.
7. NUREL-L, electronic discussion group, 1992-2001.

Manuscript and Grant Proposal Reviews:

1. Review of manuscripts for Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Aid to Scholarly Publications, 1983, 1991.
2. Review of grant proposals for Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, 1982, 1990.
3. Review of manuscripts for Studies in Religion, (Waterloo, Canada).
4. Consultant to Manitoba Human Rights Commission on racism and South Africa, March, 1982.
5. Consultant/Advisor to Christianity Today for project on religion in South Africa, 1966.
6. Consultant to Christianity Today for project on religion in Britain, 1989.
7. Consultant to a major oil company on South African issues, 1992.
8. Consultant to C.B.C. Newsworld on South Africa, 1989-.
9. Review of manuscripts for Sociological Analysis, 1990, 1991.
10. Review of manuscript for Canadian Review of American Studies, 1992, 1993.
11 Reviews of manuscripts for Canadian Journal of Sociology, 1993, 1994.
12. Review of manuscripts for Westview Press, 1993 and 1996.
13. Review of manuscript Calgary University Press, 1994
14. Review of manuscript for Ottawa University Press, 1995.
15. Review of manuscript for Theory and Psychology, 1995.
16. Review of manuscript for Inter-Varsity Press, 1995
17. Review of manuscript for University of Arizona Press, 1996.
18. Review of manuscript for Queens University Press, 1997.
19. Review of manuscript for Westview, 1997.
20. Review of manuscript for Rougtledge, 1998
21. Review of manuscript for Routleged, 1999
22. Review of manuscript for University of Ottawa Press, 1999


1. Service Supervisor, Stalybridge, North Western Gas Board, England.
2. Regent College, Inter-disciplinary studies and "inter-term program" coordinator, 1977-1980.

Union/Faculty Association Work:

1. Union Representative, General and Municipal Workers Union, Stockport, 1964.
2. Union Representative, National Association of Local Government Employees, Stretford, 1976-1977.
3. Faculty Association Representative, University of Manitoba, 1981-1984.
4. Faculty Association Executive, University of Manitoba, 1982-1984.
5. Faculty Association Representative on the Faculty Promotions Committee, Faculty of Law, University of Calgary, 1992-.

Committee Work:

a) Government:
1. School's Council Religious Education Project, Curriculum Development in Junior Schools, Derby Working Group, 1976-1977.

b) University & College:
1. Bishop Lonsdale College, Planning Committee for B.Ed. degree, 1974-1977.
2. Chairperson, Continuing Education Committee, Regent College, 1978-1980.
3. Member of Vancouver School of Theology Senate, 1978-1980.
4. Management Committee, Centre on Aging, University of Manitoba, 1982-1984.
5. Bookstore Management Committee, University of Manitoba, 1982-1984.
6. Member of the Faculty Association Executive, University of Manitoba, 1982-1984.
7. Member of University of Calgary, International Center Council, 1992-.
8. Member of University of Calgary Senate, 1995-1997.

c) Faculty:
1. Academic Planning Committee, Regent College, 1977-1980.
2. Library Committee, Regent College, 1977-1979.
3. Chairman, Working Group on New Religious Movements, University of Manitoba, 1981-1984.
4. Faculty of Arts, Space Committee, , University of Manitoba, 1983-1984.
5. Representative to the Faculty of Social Science, University of Calgary, 1986-1988.
6. Faculty of Humanities, Research Committee, University of Calgary, 1987-1989.
7. Faculty of Humanities, Open House Committee, University of Calgary, 1991.
8. Faculty of Humanities, Curriculum Committee, University of Calgary, 1991-1992.
9. Faculty of Humanities, Executiver Committee, University of Calgary, 1993-1995
10. Faculty of Humanities Representative on the Faculty of Engineering, University of Calgary, 1997-1998.d)

1. Curriculum Committee, Department of Religious Studies, Bishop Lonsdale College.
2. Graduate Committee, Department of Religion, University of Manitoba, 1981-1984.
3. Library Committee, Department of Religion, University of Manitoba, 1982-1984.
4. Open House, Display Coordinator, Department of Religion, University of Manitoba, 1981-1983.
5. Curriculum Committee, Department of Religion, University of Manitoba, 1982-1984.
6. Graduate Studies Committee, Department of Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1986-1990; 1995-.
7. Chairman, Search Committee, Department of Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1988-1989.
8. Visiting Speakers Coordinator, Department of Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1987-1989.
9. Undergraduate Advisor, Department of Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1991-1992 - sabbatical replacement.
10. Co-op Education Advisor, Department of Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1991-1992 - sabbatical replacement.
11. Open House, Coordinator, Department of Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1991.
12. Graduate Studies Committee, Department of Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1992-1997.
13. Chair Visiting Speaker's Committee, Department of Religious Studies, University of Calgary,1996-.
14. Budget Committee, Department of Religious Studies, University of Calgary, 1993-.

e) Other:
1. Board Member, Africa Enterprise, Canada, 1977-1980.
2. Chairman of the Board, Africa Enterprise, Canada, 1979-1980.\
3. African Program Committee, International Association History of Religion's, Congress, 1979-1980.
4. Canadian Association for Future Studies, Planning Committee for 1982 Annual Conference, 1981-1982.
5. Program Committee, 1983 National University Chaplain's Conference, 1982-1983.
6. Board Member, SCM, Winnipeg, Canada, 1982-1984.
7. Anglican Diocese of Calgary, Executive Committee, 1986-1989.
8. Coordinator of E-Mail discussion group CALVIN-L 1992-1994.
9. Coordinator of E-Mail discussion group NUREL-L, 1992-2001.

Confrenences organized:
1. "Contemporary African Religions," organized with Fred Welbourn, University of Bristol, 1978.
2. "Christians and Economic Crisis", St. John's College, University of Manitoba, 2-5 May, 1983.
3. "Global Culture: Charismatic/Pentecostal Movements Worldwide," assisting Karla Poewe, 1991.

Conference Sessions Organized and Chaired:
1. African Religion, Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Salt Lake City, 1989.
2. Charismatic Religion, Canadian Society for the Study of Religion, Victoria, 1990.
3. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Co-ordinator of two Panels, Virginia Beach, 1990.
4. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Co-ordinator of two Panels, Pittsburg, 1991.
5. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Co-ordinator of two Panels, Washington, D.C., 1992.
6. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Co-ordinator of Panel, San Diago, 1997.
7. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Co-ordinator of two Panels, Montreal, 1998.


1. $12,000 from the private sector for the Calgary Institute for the Humanities. Matching grants from the Province of Alberta brings this to $24,000, 1989.
2. $3,000 for the Global Culture Conference, with Karla Poewe, University of Calgary, 1991.
3. $500 from the private sector to help support of special case Ph.D. student in 1991.


Lectures on Gas Technology, Stretford Technical College, 1966-1967.

At Bishop Lonsdale College, 1974-1977:
The Gospel of St. Matthew
Introduction to Religious Studies
History of Religions East and West
The Development of American Religious Movements
Cults, Sects and New Religions
Social Issues and Religion
Religion and Society in Southern Africa
Open University, Humanities Course Tutor

At the University of Manitoba, 1980-1984:
Introduction to Religious Studies
History of Religions
Modern Atheistic and Religious Thought since 1800
Cults, Sects and New Religions
African Religions
Social Issues and Religion
Social Issues in Business, Faculty of Commerce

At the University of Calgary, 1984-:
The Nature of Religion
History of Religion
Technology and Religion
Missions and the Transformation of Religion in Africa
Nationalism and Religion
Cults, Sects and New Religions
Modern Religious Thought
Millenarian Movements
Sociology of Religion
Social Issues and Religion

Graduate Teaching:

At Regent College, 1977-1980:
Christianity and Western Thought
Christianity and Culture
Theology and Politics
Philosophy of Religion
Theological Ethics
History of Religions
Contemporary Religious Movements
Cults, Sects and New Religions
Missions and Society

At the University of Calgary, 1984-:
Methods in the Study of Religion
Phenomenology of Religion
African Religions
Primal Religions
Modern Religious Thought
Contemporary Religious Behavior
Fundamentalism and Charismatic Religion
Internet Seminar on New Religious MovementsGraduate Theses:

Because there were not Ph.D. programs in Religious Studies at the universities where I have taught most of my graduate supervision has been at the master's level. I was/am involved in the supervision and examination of the following masters theses. A "*" designates theses where I was/am the principle supervisor. Masters theses:

1. * Wallace R. Johnson, An Analysis of a Christian Development Project in Belize, 1979.
2. * Mark Mullins, Zen Buddhism in North America: Towards a Christian Understanding, 1980.
3. Donald Goertz, The Making of a Bible Belt: Religion in Alberta in the 1920's and 1930's, 1980.
4. * Harry D. Ayer, A Study of the Christian Labor Association of Canada, 1980.
5. Jane Braamstadt, A History of Unitarian Church in Winnipeg, 1984.
6. *John Lee, A Study of Min Jung Theology in Korea, 1985.
7. * John Dyke, A Study of Religious Education and Values Clarification, 1986.
8. Hubert R. Krygsman, Practical Preaching: The Liberal Theology of George M. Grant, 1986.
9. Martha Lee, The Nations of Islam, 1987.
10. Susan Roxborough, Religious Experience Among Students at the University of Calgary, 1988.
11. Samantha Thompson, Brandon College and the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy, 1919-1926, 1990.
12. Donald Poirier, Restoration, Modernity and Scripture, 1992.
13. Troy Weber, Inferences on the Problem of Evil, 1993.
14. Marco Aurelio Navarro-Genie, August `Cesar' Sandino: A Modern Millenarian Leader, 1993.
15. * Jeanie Hunter, An Analysis of the "Prosperity Gospel, 1993.
16. *Kurt Widmar, Aspects of Early Mormon History and Dogma, 1994.
17. *Angela Lewis, A Study of Kabalarian Philosophy as a New Religious Movement, 1994.
18. *Ann White, Contemporary Revivalism, 1994.
19. Liam Murphy, The Social Construction of Evil in Jamaica, 1994
20. James Opp, Fundamentalism & Evangelicalism in Canada, 1921-1940, 1994
21. *Paula Holmes, The Victory Church Movement in Alberta, 1995.
22. Adam Hill, Martin Luther: Marriage and Women, 1997
23. *James Loewen, The Vineyard Faith Church Movement in Calgary, 1997.
24. *Rob Lagore, `Melodyland' and the Origins of the Charismatic Movement in America, ongoing.
25. *Carson Pue, Religion in Prairie City, June 1999.

I have also been involved with the following Ph.D. theses:

1. Vera Fast, The Protestant Missions and Fur Trade Society in the Hudson's Bay Territory, 1820-1850, 1984.
2. Larry Sharp, Mission Education in Brazil, Faculty of Education, 1987.
3. John Hiemstra, Religious Influences on Dutch Radio and Television Policy, 1992.
4. Harvey Hiller, Religious Values in the Classroom Today, 1998.
5.* Linda Christensom, The New Age Movement - completed under Wayne McCready
6. *Douglas Cowan, An Analysis of Christian anti-Cult Propaganda, 1999.
7 Gloria Matskiw, A Study of Spiritualist Groups in Winnipeg, ongoing
8 *Mary-Beth Coates, Religion in the Alberta Report, ongoing
9 *Chang-Han Kim, Korean Fundamentalism - ongoing
10 I am informally involved with the following Andreas Hauser, African Independent Churches and Economic Development in South Africa (University of Hamburg, Ph.D.).

Course Development:

At Bishop Lonsdale College I played a major role in the planning of a new degree course in Religious Studies. At Regent College I was responsible for the organization of various integrated studies programmes including courses on the relation of theology to politics, education and business.

Development of Course Materials:

Over the years I have developed several sets of readings for various courses. At the University of Calgary, I use a set of nineteenth century texts on religion for my introductory course and also another set of readings for my course on African religion. I have also developed a number of slide presentations on New Religious Movements and African Religions. My most recent venture has been to make video tapes on African Religions.

Innovative Teaching:

At the University of Manitoba I participated in a two year experiment in distance education using four centres and a telephone link, 1983-1984. At the University of Calgary I coordinated an experimental course involving a professor at the University of Edmonton who taught a graduate seminar using a television and e-mail, 1994. I also developed the Internet Seminar on New Religions in 1998.


University and College Courses Taught:

1. Trinity Western College, Langley, B.C., "Hinduism and Buddhism," 1979.
2. Vancouver School of Theology, "Doing Theology in an Economic Crisis," 1982.
3. Regent College, Vancouver, "Contemporary Religious Movements", 1983.
4. Clackamas College, Portland, Oregon, "Understanding Cults," 1983.
5. Winnipeg Bible College, Winnipeg, "Cults and New Religions", 1984.
6. University of Lethbridge, "Anthropology of New Religious Movement," 1984 & 1985.
7. North American Baptist Seminary, Edmonton, "Christianity and the New Age Movement," 1991.
8. Rocky Mountain College, Calgary, "Crumbling Foundations - Theology and New Religions Today," 1993.
9. Vancouver School of Theology, "Prophets and Prayer Mountains," 1993.
10. Regent College, Calgary Extension, "Modern Religious Thought," 1993.
11. Bible School, Church on the Way, Berlin, speaker at one day conference on cults and new religions, 1995.
12. Bible School, Church on the Way, Berlin, seminar on Tom Paine and modern secularism, 1999.

Continuing Education Courses:

1. University of Bristol, "Religion and Conflict", 1970.
2. University of Bristol, "Religions East and West", 1971.
3. University of Nottingham, "An Introduction to World Religions for Teachers", 1976.
4. University of British Columbia, "South Africa Today", 1978.
5. University of British Columbia, "Religion and the Transformation of Society", 1979.
6. University of Manitoba, "World Religions: The Long Search", 1981-1982.
7. University of Manitoba, "Crisis in South Africa", six lectures, 1982.
8. University of Manitoba, "Modern Religious Thought", Teleconference, 1982-1982.
9. University of Manitoba, "Cults, Sects and New Religions", Teleconference, 1983-1984.
10 . University of Manitoba, Mature University, "Understanding New Religions", 1983.
11. University of Winnipeg, "Demystifying the Cults", day conference, 1984.
12. University of Calgary, "Understanding the New Age Movement," 1989.

Other Lectures - An incomplete list:

Invited Lectures and Papers:

1. Potchefstroom University, South Africa, "The New Mythology", 27 July 1973.
2. Philosophical Society of South Africa, Durban, "Understanding an Alternative Society", 1973.
3. Commonwealth Institute, University of London, "Christian National Education in South Africa", 1975.
4. University of Manchester, "Dingaan's Day and the Afrikaner Civil Religion", 1976.
5. Stanford University, "South Africa Today," 1976
5. Continuing Education Department, University of British Columbia, "The Meaning of Müldergate", 1979.
6. University of British Columbia, "Black Politics in South Africa", 31 October, 1979.
7. Carey Hall Baptist College, "Christian Missions and Canadian Natives on the Northwest Coast", 1978.
8. University of British Columbia, "Abraham Kuyper, Pluralism, and Apartheid", 1979.
9. University of British Columbia, "The Lost Peace - Britain and the Transvaal," 1979. "
10. Manitoba Psychiatric Association, "The Disenchanted Adolescent and the Cults", 1980.
11. Grand Rounds Medical Lecture, University of Manitoba, "A Historical Perspective on the Cults", 1980.
12. University of Cape Town, "Afrikaner Religion and Social Change", 3 lectures, 1981.
13. University of Cape Town, "Deprogramming and New Religions in America", 1981.
14. Regent College, Vancouver, Canada, "Understanding Cults and New Religions", public lecture, 1983.
15. University of Bristol, England, "Afrikaner Nationalism," 1985.
16. Oak Hill Theological College, London, England, "Christians & New Religions", 1987.
17. University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, "Understanding New Religions", 1987.
18. University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, "Faith for the Fearful: Whose Faith? Whose Fear?", 1989.
19. University of Maryland, Washington, U.S.A., "New Religions: an Anthropological Perspective", 1989.
20. University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany, "The New Mythology and Conversion to New Religions," 1993.
21. University of British Columbia, "Contemporary South Africa," 1994.
22. Forschungsschwerpunkt Moderner Orient/Center for Modern Oriental Studies, Berlin, Germany, "The Irony of Apartheid Revisited," 20 April, 1995.
23. University of Marburg, Germany, "Wer war Isaiah Shembe?," 15 December 1995.
24. University of Maryland, College Park, "The Problem of Academic Fraud," 1997.
25. Lakehead University, "New Religions Today," 1999
26. University of Leipzig, "Black Mischief: Suicide or Murder in Uganda," 2000
27. Bayreuth University, "Analyzing Press Reports of the Uganda Cult Murder/Suicides," 2000

Kenote Addresses:

1. Vancouver Community College, "Facing the Future?," 1979.
2. Mennonite Economic Development Associates, Conference, "Where Faith and Economics Meet", 1982.
3. King's College, Edmonton, "Christianity, Culture and Crisis," 1982.
4. Canadian Conference on Cults and New Religions, Entheos Lodge, 1992
5. Banff Conference of Baptist Pastors, "Christianity and Global Culture," Banff Theological Lecture, 1992.

Invited Conference Papers:

1. University of York, "Dutch Calvinism and the Development of Afrikaner Nationalism", Centre for Southern African Studies Conference on Research in Progress, 1974.
2. University of Lancaster, "Calvinism, Secularization and the Origins of Apartheid", 13th. Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions, 1975.
3. British Association for the History of Religion, London, "Afrikaner Myths, Symbols and Religion", 1976.
4. University of British Columbia, "Modernity or Reaction in South Africa - The Case of Afrikaner Religion", Consultation on Modernity and Religion, 1981.
5. British Sociological Association, Conference on New Religious Movements, "Calling the Kettle Black: The Spiritual Counterfeits Project and the Cults", 1981.
6. University of Manitoba, Faculty of Law, "The New Religious Right in America", Conference on Law in a Cynical Society, 1982.
7. International Symposium on Religion, Economics and Social Thought, Vancouver, "Bob Goudzwaard's `Christian Social Thought in the Dutch Neo-Calvinist Tradition:' A Response", 1982.
8. National University Chaplain's Conference, Winnipeg, "New Religions or Dangerous Cults", 1983.
9. Colloquium on New Directions in Religious Research, University of Lethbridge, Invited respondent, 1983.
10. Evangelical Theological Society, Chicago, invited respondent to Martin Marty, 1984.
11. Southern African Religious Studies Association, Durban, "Understanding Cults and New Religions", 1987.
12. Society for the Study of New Religious Movements and Indigenous Churches, Durban, "Johanna Brandt and the rise of African Independent Churches", 1987.
13. United Nations Association, Winnipeg, "Religion and Culture in Africa", Conference, 1988.
14. Institute for Reformational Studies, South Africa, "Understanding the New Age Movement," 1989.
15. University of Manitoba, "African Religions and the Future of Religious Studies," 1989.
16. Potchefstroom University, South Africa, "Charismatics, New Religions and African Culture", 1989.
17. Theological Conference on Charismatic Christianity, Brighton, England, "Charismatic Churches and Apartheid in South Africa," with Karla Poewe, 1991.
18. Lancaster University, Conference on Religion and the Resurgence of Capitalism, "Capitalism's Strange Allies: Christian Reconstruction and Charismatic Movements in Modern America," 1991.
19. Wissenschaftliche Konferenz mit internationaler Beteiligung, Berlin, "Missionsgeschichte-Kirchengeschichte-Weltgeschichte," 1994.
20. American Anthropological Association, Washington, "Weber, Troeltsch and the Maintenance of Protestant State Church Hegemony in the Marketplace of German Religion," 1997.
21. International Coalition on Religious Freedom, Berlin, "Reflections on the Anti-Cult Movement with Reference to the German Situation," 1998.
22. Wissenschaftliche Konferenz mit internationaler Beteiligung, Berlin, "Mission und Gewalt," 1998

Other Conference Papers:

1. American Academy of Religion, New Orleans, "Reflections on the High God in Zulu Religion," 1979.
2. American Academy of Religion, Dallas, "Afrikaner Prophetic Movements, 1902-1915", 1980.
3. Western Anthropological and Sociological Association, Winnipeg, "Religion in South Africa", 1984.
4. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Boston, "Inkatha as a Civil Religion," 1986.
5. Evangelical Theological Society, Boston, "Charismatic-Evangelical Spirituality and Apartheid", 1987.
6. American Academy of Religion, Boston, "Charismatics and Apartheid", 1987.
7. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Chicago, "Glastonbury and the New Mythology", 1988.

Other Lectures:

1. St. Mary's College, Bristol, "Marx's Critique of Religion", 1972.
2. St. John's Theological College, Nottingham, "Afrikaner Calvinism and Anglicans in South Africa", 1976.
3. United Church of Canada, Heaney Presbytery, "The World Council of Churches and Rhodesia", 1978 .
4. United Church of Canada, New Westminster Presbytery, "Social Justice and the Christian", 1979.
5. United Church of Canada, New Westminster Presbytery, "Christians & Apartheid," 1979.
6. Association for the Advancement of Christian Scholarship, Alberta Branch, Annual Conference, three lectures, "Christians and Social Justice," 1979.
7. Foothills Christian College, "New Religions". two lectures, 1985.
12. Citizens for Public Justice, Calgary, "Social Justice, Canadians and South Africa", 1987.
13. Christian Medical Society, Calgary, "Christians and the South African Conflict", Annual Meeting, 1989.
14. Baptist Urban Ministries Conference, Toronto, March "Christians and the New Age Movement," 1990.
15. Canadian Conference on Cults and New Religions, Calgary, "The Challenge of Religious Pluralism," 1991.
16. Anglican Diocese, New Westminster, Youth Conference, three lectures, "New Age-New Religions," 1994.
17. Anglican Cathedral, Calgary, "The New Spirituality," 1997.

Public Service:

Frequent lectures at local churches and service clubs plus regular radio and television appearances on both local stations and for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. One appearance on the BBC World Service.


1. Professor Alan Sell, United Theological College, Aberystwyth, Dyfed, SY23 2LT. Telephone: 0970-624574

2. Professor Rodney Stark, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, Seatle, WA 98195, U.S.A.
Telephone: 206-881-1417

3. Professor Kenneth Ingham, The Woodlands, 94 West Town Lane, Bristol, BS4 5DZ, England.
Telephone: 2272-776588.

4. Professor Gerald Pillay, Religious Studies, 2 Trent Ave., University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
Telephone: 64 3 479 7091

5. Professor Richard Elphick, Department of History, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, U.S.A., 0659-000
Tel: 860-346-1071